After you have purchased your first Bitcoin, proper Bitcoin storage is the next crucial step. While many resort to buying and holding their Bitcoin on custodial exchanges that offer convenience and simplicity, it's important to recognize there are more secure methods for safeguarding your digital assets.
Our guide 'How to Buy Bitcoin' emphasizes the importance of withdrawing your Bitcoin to your personal wallet post-purchase. This easy step ensures you have full control of your Bitcoin. The ability to self-custody Bitcoin is a defining characteristic of the asset, allowing you to become your own bank.
Self-custody with Bitcoin provides a sovereign banking experience where you fully control your funds. At the heart of self-custody are your private keys, which are given to you when you open a non-custodial wallet. These private keys come in the form of 12 words commonly referred to as a 'seed phrase' (or 'recovery phrase') and are essential to accessing your Bitcoin.
As such, your seed phrase should be written down and stored in a secure location that is secret and safe. Losing your seed phrase can result in the permanent loss of your Bitcoin. It should never be shared, so be vigilant against phishing attacks, where malicious actors may attempt to trick you into revealing your private keys.
While the possibility of losing your Bitcoin may seem daunting, the empowerment that comes with self-custody has an undeniable appeal. And the reality is that using a digital wallet app for managing your Bitcoin can be as intuitive as a traditional banking app.
Understanding Bitcoin Wallets
Now that we've gone over the importance of self-custody and seed phrases let's explore four key components of Bitcoin wallets. These defining characteristics, along with understanding your risk profile, will help you choose the wallet type that best aligns with your security needs and preferences.
What Are Custodial Wallets?
Custodial wallets hold your private keys for you; this means you are entrusting a third party to hold your Bitcoin. While custodial wallets offer ease of use and simplify Bitcoin custody, you're subject to counterparty risk. If the exchange or wallet service fails, you could lose your Bitcoin.
What Are Non-Custodial Wallets?
Non-custodial wallets offer ultimate control over your Bitcoin. When you open a non-custodial wallet, you receive your private keys, making you the sole guardian of your Bitcoin and granting you full control over your funds. This absolves any counterparty risk.
What Are Hot Wallets?
Hot wallets, often called 'mobile wallets,' are like your everyday wallet but for Bitcoin. They are connected to the internet, which makes them great for quick and convenient transactions, but they aren't recommended for significant long-term savings. In the same way, you wouldn't carry your life savings around in your physical wallet; hot wallets are best for smaller amounts of Bitcoin. Hot wallets, which include mobile apps easily accessible on your mobile device, as well as desktop and browser-based platforms, offer convenience and quick access to your Bitcoin. However, their online connectivity exposes them to potential cyber threats. While hot wallets are cost-effective and convenient, they are generally less secure than cold wallets.
What Are Cold Wallets?
Cold wallets, sometimes called 'offline wallets,' are the Fort Knox of Bitcoin storage. These wallets are entirely offline and come in the form of a small hardware device similar to a USB drive. While cold wallets have an upfront cost and are a bit more technical, they are renowned for their high level of security compared to hot wallets. As such, cold wallets have become the go-to way for safeguarding larger amounts of Bitcoin.
Securing Your Bitcoin Wallet
There are many ways to store and safeguard your wealth in the world of Bitcoin. Below, we explore three popular methods for securing your Bitcoin while retaining complete control over your funds: software wallets, hardware wallets, and multi-signature wallets.
Software wallets, typically hot wallets, are one of the easiest and most popular ways to store your Bitcoin. These usually come as an application or software program you can install on your computer or smartphone. They are designed for convenient and immediate access to your Bitcoin, making them suitable for day-to-day transactions.
- Accessibility: Software wallets are typically user-friendly and easily accessible, making transacting and managing your Bitcoin easier.
- Connectivity: Since software wallets are typically connected to the internet, they facilitate seamless and convenient Bitcoin transactions.
- Lightning Ready: Many software wallets leverage the power of the Lighting Network, a payments layer on Bitcoin that allows for instant and cheap Bitcoin transactions.
- Private Key Control: Most software wallets will provide your private keys when you set up the wallet. If they don't, you're probably using a custodial software wallet. For full control over your Bitcoin, use a non-custodial wallet.
- Online Threats: While convenient, software wallets can be more susceptible to potential threats and malware than their cold storage counterparts due to their internet connectivity.
- Extra Security Measures: To keep your wallet safe, using strong passwords and enabling two-factor authentication can enhance your digital security.
Wallet providers such as Blue Wallet, Blockstream Green, and Muun Wallet offer easy-to-use apps on your smartphone that give you full control over your Bitcoin.
Hardware wallets are physical devices designed specifically for storing Bitcoin securely offline. They provide a higher level of security than software wallets for long-term Bitcoin storage.
- Cold Storage: Hardware wallets operate entirely offline, making them immune to online threats.
- Private Key Isolation: Private keys are generated offline and isolated from your smartphone or computer, enhancing overall security.
- User-Friendly: Despite more advanced security, hardware wallets are still suitable for beginners and experienced users.
- Private Key Control: Hardware wallets will provide you with your private keys when you open the wallet, ensuring you have full control over your funds.
- Upfront Cost: Hardware wallets typically come with an initial cost; however, they are a worthwhile investment for their enhanced security.
- Single Signature: Hardware wallets typically only require one private key to access and authorize Bitcoin transactions.
- Single Point of Failure: It is essential to keep your private keys (your 12-word seed phrase) secret and safe. Loss of your seed phrase, whether by accident, theft, or unauthorized access, will result in permanent loss of your Bitcoin.
- Geographical Separation: To mitigate the risk of losing your seed phrase, making physical copies and storing them separately from your hardware wallet is recommended. Writing your seed down as a 'paper wallet' is the best practice when setting up your hardware wallet. However, for long-term security against physical damage, consider engraving your seed phrase onto steel. This method is tamper-proof and resistant to elements like fires or floods, ensuring a durable backup of your Bitcoin.
Hardware wallets like a ColdCard Mk4 (loaded with security features) and Blockstream Jade are easy to use and provide you with the full control and security expected from a hardware wallet.
Multisig wallets require multiple private keys to access and authorize a Bitcoin transaction. These wallets add an additional layer of security by distributing the control of Bitcoin between multiple parties or devices. These are considered even more secure than hardware wallets that typically only require one private key to access the Bitcoin.
Multisig wallets are suitable for individuals and provide robust security solutions for businesses.
- Enhanced Security: Multisig wallets reduce the risk of unauthorized access or theft as they require multiple keys to access the Bitcoin.
- Cold Storage: Multisig wallets are a form of cold storage, and hardware wallets can even be used as one of the private key devices in your setup.
- Protection Against Single Points of Failure: Even if one of your private keys is compromised, the funds remain secure, protecting against single points of failure.
- Customizable: Users can decide the number of keys required and the combination of devices or parties to access the Bitcoin.
- Complexity: Setting up and managing a multisig wallet usually requires more expertise than other wallet setups, and keeping all your private keys secure is crucial.
At Theya Bitcoin, we offer a 2-of-3 multisig wallet set up through a streamlined app. With Theya's user-friendly interface, you can effortlessly set up a 2-of-3 multisig wallet by assigning one key to each of two separate devices. This eliminates the stress of backing up seed phrases and simplifies sharing custody of your Bitcoin with your loved ones. At any point, you'll need two of your three private keys to access your Bitcoin. In a scenario where one of your two keys becomes compromised, Theya has you covered. By holding one of the three keys for you, if compromised, they ensure you will always have access to your Bitcoin. This removes the possibility of a single point of failure from your Bitcoin wallet setup.
These three methods for securing your Bitcoin offer varying degrees of security and convenience, allowing users to choose the wallet setup that best aligns with their knowledge and security preferences. The good news is that you can open multiple Bitcoin wallets, giving you the freedom to experiment with various wallet setups as you navigate your Bitcoin journey. You'll likely find yourself using different wallet setups to varying degrees. Remember that each method has advantages and disadvantages, so weighing all the factors when deciding how best to secure your Bitcoin is essential.